Spy-masters, moles, and double-agents. Ciphers, saboteurs, and atomic secrets. The shady world of real-life espionage is as alarming and mysterious as any John Le Carre novel or James Bond movie. This outstanding book chronicles the international history of intelligence in the 20th century, exploring the impact of spies on world events during both war and peacetime. The work highlights the key events and breakthroughs in the history of intelligence and espionage - from the codebreaking and sabotage operations in the World Wars to the U2 incident and the CIA's secret war in Nicaragua. It also offers fascinating details of the colourful individuals who have made a mark as spies, defectors, and counterspies. The increasing importance of technology is a central theme in the book, from the advances in reconnaissance that make modern warfare possible to the spy satellites that help to verify arms control treaties. With the end of the cold war Richelson examines the role of intelligence in the 1990s and beyond, including the possibility of US-Soviet co-operation to combat terrorism and to halt the proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons to developing countries.