This Companion provides an overview of European history during the 'long' nineteenth century, from 1789 to 1914. It consists of 32 chapters written by leading international scholars. It balances coverage of political, diplomatic and international history with discussion of economic, social and cultural concerns. It covers both Eastern and Western European states, including Britain. It pays considerable attention to smaller countries as well as to the great powers. It compares particular phenomena and developments across Europe.