"After the Three Italies" develops a new political economy approach to the analysis of comparative regional development and the territorial division of labour and exemplifies it through an up-to-date account of Italian industrial change and regional economic performance. It responds to recent theoretical debates in economic geography, involving economists, geographers and planners. It builds the foundations for a new theoretical approach to regional economic development and the territorial division of labour.It draws on the results of a recent ESRC funded research project, as well as on a large range of official data sets. It provides an up-to-date picture of Italy's economic performance and of its recent development relative to other European countries and the rest of the world. It analyses Italy's internal differentiation and its persistent regional inequalities. It examines the regional impact of the recent evolution of the car, chemicals, steel and clothing industries. It leads to a new and more complex picture of Italian development.