One of the tragic factors of the AIDS epidemic as it moves into its second decade is the growing number of infected women and children. This is the first scholarly book on AIDS devoted specifically to public policies affecting women and children. It sets in historical perspective a comprehensive analysis of the ethical, legal, clinical, and public health issues raised by a central policy question affecting women and children - whether and under what conditions pregnant women and newborns should be tested for evidence of HIV infection. Problems of public health and community interests, medical uncertainty and benefit, privacy, discrimination, informed consent, reproductive counselling and exploitation are examined in depth. Written by an interdisciplinary group of national experts, this book not only presents a specific program of policy recommendations for the present situation, but examines how these recommendations should change in the future, with advances in testing technologies and therapies. Although the focus is on women and children, the analysis and arguments presented here have far-reaching implications for HIV screening policies in all populations.