This volume is an investigation into the formulation and implementation of the South African government's reform apartheid programme. Specifically, it examines the role of the National Security State, that is to say a state recast in terms of counter-revolutionary strategy, as a transformative agent in the volatile topography of modernization and revolution. Using a series of interviews and unexamined documents, the book highlights the attempt by P.W. Botha's security state to reform the apartheid system through the calibrated introduction of reformist legislation and repressive measures. The rising tide of black protest against the Botha programme, culminating in the imposition of a nationwide state of emergency, spelled the end of the experiment. Faced with internal and international pressures, the South African government abandoned reform apartheid, paving the way for the onset of negotiations with the African National Congress.