Underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics fields is a problem that has persisted over the past three decades and is most severe at the highest levels of the STEM career path. Although national attention has been directed toward increasing the presence of women in STEM, women continue to leave at critical junctures in STEM training and careers at a higher rate than men. This volume of New Directions for Institutional Research takes a comprehensive look at the status of women in STEM and considers related factors, theoretical perspectives, and innovative tools that have the potential to help scholars understand, study, and improve the experiences of women in STEM fields. This is the 152nd volume of New Directions for Institutional Research. Always timely and comprehensive, New Directions for Institutional Research provides planners and administrators in all types of academic institutions with guidelines in such areas as resource coordination, information analysis, program evaluation, and institutional management.