This book addresses the grave concerns stemming out due to conventional treatment techniques. The main focus of this book revolves round the central kernel of novel technology (bioremediation and biotechnology) which has emerged as an independent warrior to clean up and restore the disturbed environs. Furthermore, this book is a coherent assortment of diverse chapters relevant to the role of biotechnology and bioremediation for restoration of the ecosystems degraded by pesticide and heavy metal pollution. The inaugural chapters deal with the quantification of problem and its magnitude due to pesticides and heavy metals, followed by innovative modern biotechnological and bioremediation treatment technologies and sustainable techniques to remediate the persistent pollutants. It is a detailed comprehensive account for the treatment technologies from unsustainable to sustainable. Academicians, researchers and students shall find it as a complete wrap up regarding biotechnological intervention for sustainable treatment of pollution and shall suffice for the diverse needs of teaching and research.