Chemistry, Process Design, and Safety for the Nitration Industry
This is the third ACS Symposium Series book dealing with nitration, the first two having been published in 1976 and 1996. The nature of this 2013 publication reflects the changes worldwide in process safety management, and geographies of research and manufacturing. The contributions to this book were first presented at the 243rd ACS National Meeting in San Diego, California in March of 2012, in the Industrial and Chemical Engineering Division. Several of the chapters deal with the burgeoning capacity increases in the polyurethane industry, requiring improved methods to nitrate benzene and toluene, to ultimately produce MDI and TDI. Methods to manage waste streams from these nitrations plants are also discussed. There are several chapters on process safety that discuss accident investigation, process redesign, and sensitivity testing of energetic material. Hazards of laboratory and pilot plant nitration studies are addressed. Several of the papers describe considerations which must be taken into account when analyzing nitration reaction samples. These chapters represent practical application of known principles and concepts.
Some of the chapters read more like a tutorial than a scientific paper. Those new to nitration will benefit the most from reading this book, but it will serve to remind the experienced of factors to consider when operating a nitration facility.