This book presents a comparative analysis of residential, social, economic and political rights for aliens. We will analyse the concepts of nationality and citizenship. Some foreigners are increasingly able to enjoy traditional citizenship rights though residential and/or regional citizenship. There is no previous research for Japan in addition to the UK, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and America. Also it is fruitful to construct the bridge among several disciplines such as jurisprudence, political science and sociology.