During the recent decades, social, political and academic endeavours have been made to improve environmental quality and reduce pollution. In particular, the ocean, sea and coastal areas show varying degrees of impact from the multiple human activities carried out in the terrestrial as well as in the aquatic environment. Ecology is a science which studies the relationship between organisms and the surrounding environment and in the modern era, the marine world is getting increasing attention. For centuries it has been the final reservoir of human garbage; later it became an oil farm with a concomitant increase of coastal population growth and unplanned growth of the fishing industry and the increasing use of sea routes for cargo transport and recreational uses (cruises). All this led to rising contamination with negative effects on biota and even human health. It is then imperative to know the current situation of the world's oceans: that is the main purpose of this book, to document at a glance the latest research in the field of ocean pollution.