Mechanical properties of composite materials can be improved by tailoring their microstructures. Optimal microstructures of composites, which ensure desired properties of composite materials, can be determined in computational experiments. The subject of this book is the computational analysis of interrelations between mechanical properties (e.g., strength, damage resistance stiffness) and microstructures of composites. The methods of mesomechanics of composites are reviewed, and applied to the modelling of the mechanical behaviour of different groups of composites. Individual chapters are devoted to the computational analysis of the microstructure- mechanical properties relationships of particle reinforced composites, functionally graded and particle clusters reinforced composites, interpenetrating phase and unidirectional fiber reinforced composites, and machining tools materials.