Criminal records are essential to the smooth running of the criminal justice system, but have been overlooked and neglected by academe. This book considers the uses of criminal records within the criminal justice system and beyond. In the UK, the system of collecting criminal records began in 1869 and, today, approximately six million computerized records are kept by the police for daily use. Criminal records help the police solve crime and the judiciary to decide on suitable punishments. They are also used by the probation service, the prison serivce and other parts of the criminal justice system, and, increasingly, are used by agencies outside that system, especially for pre-employment checks, as well as by jurisdictions beyond national borders as exchanges of information are encouraged at an global level. This book explores the implications of the changes in use of criminal records and considers the implications for the international community.