Today Iran is once again in the headlines. Part of President George W. Bush's "Axis of Evil" and next-door neighbor to tumultuous Iraq, Iran's future is a matter of grave concern both for the stability of the region and for the safety of the global community. In this book, Ali Gheissari and Vali Nasr look at the political history of Iran in the modern era, and offer an optimistic assessment of the prospects for democracy to flourish there. After having produced the only successful Islamist challenge to the state, a revolution and an Islamic Republic, Iran is now poised to produce the first genuine indigenous democracy in the Muslim world. Democracy in Iran is neither a sudden development nor a western import, Gheissari and Nasr argue. The concept of democracy in Iran today may appear to be a reaction to totalitarianism, but it is an old idea with a complex history, one that is tightly interwoven with the main forces that have shaped Iranian society and politics, institutions, identities, and interests. Indeed, the demand for democracy first surfaced in Iran a century ago at the end of the Qajar period, and helped produce Iran's surprisingly liberal first constitution in 1906.
Gheissari and Nasr seek to understand why democracy failed to grow roots and lost ground to an autocratic Iranian state. Why was democracy absent from the ideological debates of the 1960s and 1970s? Most important, why has it now become a powerful social, political, and intellectual force? How have modernization, social change, economic growth, and the experience of the revolution converged to make this possible? Gheissari and Nasr trace the fortunes of the democratic ideal from the inchoate demands for rule of law and constitutionalism of a century ago to today's calls for individual rights and civil liberties. In the process they provide not just a fresh look at Iran's politics but a new understanding of the way in which democracy as an idea can develop in a Muslim country.