The contributors to this volume bring a variety of experience, background and interest to bear on this issue and considerable attention is given to the design of appropriate structural adjustment programmes as well as the role of debt reduction, food aid and the European Community in this context. Other important issues discussed include: the link between dependent development and enviornmental degredation, the woodfuel crisis, the political economy of rural development, the transfer of institutional innovations; the role of women's organizations in development and foreign direct investment by newly industrialized countries. An important overall theme which emerges from this book is that there is a need for an adaptive evolutionary approach to problems of development. The Development Studies Association (DSA) was set up in 1977 to promote the advancement of knowledge of international development issues and to facilitate communication and cooperation in this field. This volume contains a selection of papers from its annual conference held in Belfast in September 1989.