The book examines the development of Irish, Basque and Carlist nationalist movements in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The first chapter covers definitions for the nation and nationalism, relationship of both to politics and ideology, the seemingly contradictory bases of national conceptualization common to all nations, and an overview of the inception and evolution of nationalism in Western Europe. The following two chapters consider indepth case-studies of Irish nationalism within the context of the UK and, in Spain, Basque and Carlist nationalism. The necessary historical background for each case is provided, as well as discussion of the respective movements and ideologies. The focus is on the evolving ideological bases of each movement, the argument being that ideology forms the fundamental link between categorization and different variants of nationalism in traditionally styled liberal states of Europe.