The Third World is facing new challenges arising from the emergence of new technologies - microelectronics and biotechnologies - and the process of globalization in capital, goods and services markets. This book examines the pros and cons of using new technologies at different levels of technological capabilities in the Third World. The implications of this challenge for most developing countries, which are users but not producers of these technologies, are considered in terms of their actual and potential impact on employment, income distribution and competitiveness. This last factor is becoming increasingly important, given increasing international competition and globalization of production. The book also pays attention to the need for cleaner or environment-friendly technologies, particularly in small enterprises, to prevent resource depletion and attain sustainable development.