In the early and mid-1990s, several African countries demobilized part of their armed forces. This book analyses, in the light of Africa's large development challenges and continuing wars and insecurity, the questions: to what extent and how demobilizations have contributed to peace and human development? Where did the soldiers go? What can we learn from the different approaches that have been taken? These questions provide insights into the connection between development and conflict, and teach us valuable lessons for demilitarization and peace-building efforts in postwar societies.