In recent years many multinational enterprises have increased the amount of their R and D performed in dispersed locations overseas. In some cases this aims to provide improved products and processes for host countries and in others to establish internationally integrated programmes of more basic work taping into geographically dispersed sources of scientific expertise. The detailed survey and interview results reported in this volume provide the basis for a detailed discussion of issues relating to both parent company perspectives on such dispersed R and D, and the viewpoints of the overseas "subsidiary" laboratories performing such work. The issues covered include, the nature of the work done in overseas facilities; the specialization of roles in geological R and D; co-ordination practices; sources of ideas implemented in R and D programmes; sources of funding in overseas R and D; attitudes to government policies. Another key concern of the book is to analyse the consequences of the spread of R and D by MNES for the various countries in which they operate.