This book presents an examination of one of the first joint actions undertaken by the European Union under the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) provisions of Maastricht. The case-study of South Africa is particularly important as it straddles both the CFSP and the European Political Cooperation (EPC) periods and thus similarities and constraints in policy-making and implementation can be made. The EC/EU policy vis-a-vis South Africa is traced from 1977 through to the April 1994 South African elections. The earlier policy period of sanctions and positive measures are compared with the 1990s policies of election observation, the normalization of bilateral relations and development policy. General conclusions about the effectiveness and institutional aspects of joint actions are drawn and recommendations for improved CFSP joint actions proposed. Vice-President of the Commission, Sir Leon Brittan, has contributed a foreword to this volume.