The first book to combine all of the various topics relevant to low--cost automation. Practical approach covers methods immediately applicable to industrial problems, showing how to select the most appropriate control method for a given application, then design the necessary circuit. Focuses on the control circuits and devices (electronic, electro--mechanical, or pneumatic) used in small-- to mid--size systems. Stress is on on--off (binary) control as opposed to continuous feedback (analog) control. Discusses well--known procedures and their modifications, and a number of original techniques and circuit design methods. Covers "flexible automation,a a including the use of microcomputers.