Why does $2 \times 2 = 4$? What are fractions? Imaginary numbers? Why do the laws of algebra hold? And how do we prove these laws? What are the properties of the numbers on which the Differential and Integral Calculus is based? In other words, What are numbers? And why do they have the properties we attribute to them? Thanks to the genius of Dedekind, Cantor, Peano, Frege and Russell, such questions can now be given a satisfactory answer. This English translation of Landau's famous ""Grundlagen der Analysis"" - also available from the AMS - answers these important questions.