In the summer of 2009, leading professionals from industry, government, and academia gathered for a free-spirited debate on the future trends of microelectronics. This volume represents the summary of their valuable contributions. Providing a cohesive exploration and holistic vision of semiconductor microelectronics, this text answers such questions as: What is the future beyond shrinking silicon devices and the field-effect transistor principle? Are there green pastures beyond the traditional semiconductor technologies? This resource also identifies the direction the field is taking, enabling microelectronics professionals and students to conduct research in an informed, profitable, and forward-looking fashion.