This book discusses the application of geological methods and theory to archaeology. Written as a survey text covering appropriate methods and techniques taken from geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and geochronology, it shows the student the practicality and importance of the techniques' use in solving archaeological problems. Specific techniques are illustrated by practical results obtained from their use on archaeological digs. The geographical scope is international, drawing on sites from both hemispheres, eg the Franchti Cave (Greece), St. Catherines Island (USA), the Roman site of Drand (France), and Monte Verde (Chile). The authors also address applications in less traditional areas such as underwater, historical, industrial, and conservation archaeology.