This text considers human resource management in the context of an increasingly international stage. The international issues relate to unionism, the role of the state, collective bargaining, and participation in agreement procedures. Special emphasis is given to the developing principles and practices of HRM. Human resource management is taught more and more in a comparative way, resulting from increasing integration, from economic pressures and organisational change. The external influences of the Single European Market and deregulation are producing similar responses in Europe, while the development of niche markets in an international sense is producing similar responses from multinationals. The authors illustrate these issues using a series of `snapshots' or concise descriptions at the end of sections, for European and other countries.