Larry Temkin examines the concepts of equality and inequality, and addresses one particular question in depth: when is one inequality worse than another? He shows that there are many different factors underlying and influencing our egalitarian judgments and that the notion of inequality is surprisingly complex. He looks at inequality as applied to individuals and to groups, and considers whether inequality matters more in a poor society than a rich one. The arguments of non-egalitarians are also examined. Temkin presents a new way of thinking about equality and inequality which challenges the assumptions of philosophers, welfare economists, and others concerned with these notions on a practical as well as a theoretical level.