The modern State of Israel is a product of centuries of Jewish history that affect all aspects of Israel's society and culture, its politics, and its policies. Professors Reich and Kieval introduce us to a nation seeking to maintain and enhance its traditions while struggling to deal with present domestic and foreign challenges. They examine the land and people of Israel and the division between Jews of Oriental and Ashkenazi backgrounds as well as the division between Jewish and Arab citizens, before turning to the economic concerns facing a country virtually devoid of natural resources. Their discussion of Israel's history provides the background for a detailed consideration of the dynamics of its political system.This new edition offers a comprehensive analysis of the implications of the 1988 and 1992 elections, the far-reaching impacts of the immigration of Jews from the former Soviet Union, and the evolution of Israel's special relationship with the Reagan and Bush administrations. Reich and Kieval also offer a thoughtful discussion of the continuing Arab-Israeli conflict, focusing on the rise of the intifada and the current peace negotiations.