In June 1998, diplomats met in Rome to draft the Statute of an International Criminal Court. Based on the precedents of the Nuremberg and Tokyo Tribunals and of the War Crimes Tribunals for Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, the new Court will judge individuals, not States. This book discusses how unpunished mass slaughters have occurred in many countries, and how national justice is often ineffective. It states that truth and reconciliation commissions complement but do not replace justice, and that international "Peoples" Tribunals have no international legitimacy. It is hoped that a permanent, international criminal court may combat impunity and deter more crimes.