This new edition of the definitive work on doing paleoethnobotany follows the steady growth in the quantity and sophistication of paleoethnobotanical research. It features a rewritten chapter on phytolith analysis and a new chapter, Integrating Biological Data. It also includes new techniques, such as residue analysis, and new applications of old indicators, such as starch grains. An expanded examination of pollen analysis, more examples of environmental reconstruction, and a better balance of Old and New World examples increase the versatility of this holistic view of paleoethnobotany. Paleoenthnobotany, Second Edition presents the diverse approaches and techniques that anthropologists and botanists use to study human-plant interactions. It shows why anthropologists must identify plant remains and understand the ecology of human-plant interactions. Additionally, it demonstrates why botanists need to view the plant world from a cultural perspective and understand the strengths and weaknesses of the archaeological record.