Urbanisation in the global South is happening at a rate and scale which is far greater than when the same process unfolded in the north. Many people living under sub-standard conditions do not have their rights as urban citizens recognised and realise that they cannot rely on formal democratic channels or governance structures for their demands to be met. How the state interacts with and is perceived by urban slum dwellers will thus be of central importance for future political and economic development. This book studies the relations between slum dwellers and the state in three cities: Delhi, India; Durban, South Africa and Nairobi, Kenya. Analysing these relations both from the perspective of the state and the perspective of slum dwellers, it focuses on three core state functions - security, welfare, and political participation.