The Indian Southwest, 1580-1830 demonstrates that, in the face of European conquest, severe drought, and disease, Indians in the Southwest proved remarkably adaptable and dynamic, remaining independent actors and even prospering. Some tribes temporarily joined Spanish missions or assimilated into other tribes. Others survived by remaining on the fringe of Spanish settlement, migrating, and expanding exchange relationships with other tribes. Still others incorporated remnant bands and individuals and strengthened their economic systems. The vibrancy of southwestern Indian societies today is due in part to the exchange-based political economies their ancestors created almost three centuries ago.