This textbook serves as an introduction to groups, rings, fields, vector and tensor spaces, algebras, topological spaces, differentiable manifolds and Lie groups --- mathematical structures which are foundational to modern theoretical physics. It is aimed primarily at undergraduate students in physics and mathematics with no previous background in these topics. Applications to physics --- such as the metric tensor of special relativity, the symplectic structures associated with Hamilton's equations and the Generalized Stokes's Theorem --- appear at appropriate places in the text. Worked examples, end-of-chapter problems (many with hints and some with answers) and guides to further reading make this an excellent book for self-study. Upon completing this book the reader will be well prepared to delve more deeply into advanced texts and specialized monographs in theoretical physics or mathematics.